Scatology also appears in medieval plays such as Mankind and in works associated various French fabliaux (singular fabliau).Chaucer relies heavily on scatological humor in "The Summoner's Tale." See fabliau.: This popular grammatical construction appears in ancient Attic Greek (and it is later mimicked in New Testament Greek).In England, however, the English Queen Consort (a queen married to a ruling husband) can become the Queen Regnant (a queen ruling in her own right) if her husband dies and there are no other male relatives in line to inherit the throne.

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Anthropologists have noted that scatological humor occurs in nearly every human culture.

In some cultures and time periods, scatology is treated as vulgar or low-brow (for instance, the Victorian period in England).

The name comes from the Roman poet Juvenal (60-140 CE), who frequently employed the device, but the label is applied to British writers such as Swift and Pope as well. SCANSION: The act of "scanning" a poem to determine its meter.

To perform scansion, the student breaks down each line into individual metrical feet and determines which syllables have heavy stress and which have lighter stress.

The metrical pattern is described under Sapphic meter.

LANGUAGE (from Satem, Avestan for "one hundred"): Pronounced, "SHAH-tem," the term refers to one of the two main branches of Indo-European languages.The name comes from the Roman poet Horace (65 BCE-8 CE), who preferred to ridicule human folly in general rather than condemn specific persons.In contrast, Juvenalian satire also uses withering invective, insults, and a slashing attack.Examples include Grettir's Saga, Njál's Saga, Egil's Saga, and the Saga of Eric the Red.The saga is marked by literary and social conventions including warriors who stop in the midst of combat to recite extemporaneous poetry, individuals wearing dark blue cloaks when they are about to kill someone, elaborate genealogies and "back-story" before the main plot, casual violence, and recitations of the names and features of magical swords and weapons.According to the early conventions of English poetry, each foot should have at least one stressed syllable, though feet with all unstressed syllables are found occasionally in Greek and other poetic traditions.